A traction control system (TCS), also called ASR, is usually (but not necessarily) a secondary function of the electronic stability control (ESC) on production motorcars, designed to forestall loss of traction of driven road wheels. TCS is activated when throttle input and engine torque are mismatched to paved surface conditions.
The intervention consists of 1 or more of the following:
• Brake force applied to 1 or more wheels
• Reduction or suppression of spark sequence to 1 or more cylinders
• Reduction of fuel supply to 1 or more cylinders
• Closing the throttle if the vehicle is fitted with drive by wire throttle
• In turbocharged vehicles, a lift control solenoid is actuated to scale back boost and so engine power.
Typically, traction control systems share the electrohydraulic brake actuator (which doesn’t use the traditional cylinder and servo) and wheel speed sensors with ABS.
The basic idea behind the necessity for a traction system is that the loss of road grip that compromises steering control and stability of vehicles due to the difference in traction of the drive wheels. The difference in slip may occur because of the turning of a vehicle or varying road conditions for various wheels. When a car turns, its outer and inner wheels rotate at different speeds; this is often conventionally controlled by employing a differential. An additional enhancement of the differential is to use a lively differential that may vary the quantity of power being delivered to outer and inner wheels as required. For example, if outward slip is sensed while turning, the active differential may deliver more power to the outer wheel to reduce the yaw (essentially the degree to which the front and rear wheels of a car are out of line.) Active differential, in turn, is controlled by an assembly of electromechanical sensors collaborating with a traction control unit.
When the traction control computer (often incorporated into another control unit, like the ABS module) detects one or more driven wheels spinning significantly faster than another, it invokes the ABS electronic control unit to use brake friction to wheels spinning with lessened traction. Braking action on slipping wheel(s) will cause power transfer to wheel axle(s) with traction because of the mechanical action within the differential. All-wheel-drive (AWD) vehicles often have an electronically controlled coupling system within the transfer case or transaxle engaged (active part-time AWD), or locked-up tighter (in a real full-time founded driving all wheels with some power all the time) to provide non-slipping wheels with torque.
This often occurs in conjunction with the powertrain computer reducing available engine torque by electronically limiting throttle application and/or fuel delivery, retarding ignition spark, completely shutting down engine cylinders, and several other methods, reckoning on the vehicle and the way much technology is employed to manage the engine and transmission. There are instances when traction control is undesirable, like trying to urge a vehicle unstuck in snow or mud. Allowing one wheel to spin can propel a vehicle forward enough to urge it unstuck, whereas both wheels applying a limited amount of power won’t produce the identical effect. Many vehicles have a traction control shut-off switch for such circumstances.
Components of Traction Control:
Generally, most hardware for traction control and ABS are mostly identical. In many vehicles, traction control is provided as a further option for ABS.
• Each wheel is supplied with a sensor that senses changes in its speed thanks to the loss of traction.
• The sensed speed from the individual wheels is passed on to an electronic control unit (ECU).
• The ECU processes the data from the wheels and initiates braking to the affected wheels via a cable connected to an automatic traction control (ATC) valve.
In all vehicles, traction control is automatically started when the sensors detect loss of traction at any of the wheels.
Traction Control in Cornering:
Traction control isn’t just used for improving acceleration under slippery conditions. It can even help a driver to corner more safely. If an excessive amount of throttle is applied during cornering, the driven wheels will lose traction and slide sideways. this happens as understeer in front-wheel-drive vehicles and oversteer in rear-wheel-drive vehicles. Traction control can mitigate and possibly even correct understeer or oversteer from happening by limiting power to the overdriven wheel or wheels. However, it cannot increase the boundaries of frictional grip available and is employed only to decrease the effect of driver error or atone for a driver’s inability to react quickly enough to wheel slip.
Automobile manufacturers state in vehicle manuals that traction control systems mustn’t encourage dangerous driving or encourage driving in conditions beyond the driver’s control.
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