What is a Transmission?

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Transmission:

A transmission is a machine in a very powerful gear, which provides controlled application of the ability. Often the term 5-speed transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and kit trains to produce speed and torque conversions from a rotating power source to a different device.

In British English, the term transmission refers to the entire drivetrain, including clutch, gearbox, prop shaft (for rear-wheel drive), differential, and final drive shafts. In the English language, however, the term refers more specifically to the gearbox alone, and detailed usage differs.

The most common use is in motorized vehicles, where the transmission adapts the output of the inner combustion engine to the drive wheels. Such engines must operate at a comparatively high rotational speed, which is inappropriate for starting, stopping, and slower travel. The transmission reduces the upper engine speed to the slower wheel speed, increasing torque within the process. Transmissions also are used on pedal bicycles, fixed machines, and where different rotational speeds and torques are adapted.

 

Gearbox:

Often, a transmission has multiple gear ratios (or simply “gears”) with the flexibility to change between them as speed varies. This switching is also done manually (by the operator) or automatically. Directional (forward and reverse) control might also be provided. Single-ratio transmissions also exist, which simply change the speed and torque (and sometimes direction) of motor output.

In motorcars, the transmission generally is connected to the engine crankshaft via a flywheel or clutch or fluid coupling, partly because combustion engines cannot run below a selected speed. The output of the transmission is transmitted via the driveshaft to 1 or more differentials, which drives the wheels. While a differential might also provide gear reduction, its primary purpose is to allow the wheels at either end of an axle to rotate at different speeds (essential to avoid wheel slippage on turns) because it changes the direction of rotation.

Conventional gear/belt transmissions aren’t the sole mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation (e.g. diesel-electric transmission and hydraulic drive system). Hybrid configurations also exist. Automatic transmissions use a valve body to shift gears using fluid pressures in response to hurry and throttle input.

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