What are the Types of Supercharger?

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Types of Supercharger:

There are some different types of superchargers:

  1. Roots Supercharger
  2. Twin-Screw Supercharger
  3. Centrifugal Supercharger
  4. Electric Supercharger

The main difference between these superchargers is how they send air to the manifold.


Roots Superchargers:

Roots-type superchargers feature one of the oldest designs, dating back to the late 19th-century. Before they were utilized in automobiles, they were accustomed to ventilate mine shafts. The Roots-type and twin-screw superchargers sit directly on top of the engine. They’re seen on most factory supercharged applications.

Roots superchargers have two rotors that are driven by a belt off the crankshaft. At the doorway of the supercharger, the rotors are spinning far away from one another. The air enters and is sealed against the body of the housing inside the supercharger before passing through. Because the rotors mesh together, the air is unable to return keep a copy through the intake.

With a Roots-type supercharger, more air is shipped to the manifold. The pressure is made up of the manifold itself instead of the supercharger.


Twin-Screw Superchargers:

With a twin-screw supercharger, you have got two different types of rotors. The rotors mesh together, compressing the air together with the rotor before exiting below. The air is compressed within the supercharger itself before it’s passed along to the manifold.

Both Roots and twin-screw superchargers will be considered positive displacement superchargers. This suggests a set amount of air goes through with each revolution. The torque curve is wide, which can offer you a lift across an oversized range of RPMs.


Centrifugal Superchargers:

Where Roots-type and twin-screw superchargers sit on top of the engine, centrifugal superchargers sit closer to the front of the engine bay. They give the impression of being the same as turbochargers but are driven by an engine belt rather than exhaust gases.

A crank belt rotates the impeller, which pulls within the air. The air comes in through the intake and travels through the compressor (and intercooler, if it’s one) before being sent to the throttle body. It then passes through the manifold and on to the engine.

These sorts of superchargers aren’t positive displacements just like the Roots and twin-screw styles. Centrifugal superchargers have to spin fast to produce a lift. At low RPM, the boost is going to be lower. The boost increases because the engine spool up.

Gearing may be used therefore the impeller rotates faster than the engine RPM. But peak boost will only be reached at peak RPM, therefore the torque curve is more toward the highest end. Centrifugal superchargers tend to be smaller than Roots-type or twin-screw superchargers so it’s easier for them to include an intercooler.

Electric Superchargers:

Electric superchargers are just like centrifugal but use an electric motor instead of a belt attached to the engine. A 48-volt battery usually powers the motor. How long it takes to spool up an electrical supercharger will depend upon what proportion of energy is within the battery. The battery can recharge during coasting for better efficiency.

As long as there’s power within the battery, you’ll adjust the torque curve however you would like. this implies there’s little to no lag time. It can spool fully in as little as 0.5 seconds for immediate max boost. Electric superchargers have a high rotation speed, reaching up to 120,000 RPM. That’s on top of some turbochargers. These systems are very powerful but will be complex, costly, and heavy.

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